From a funding perspective, consists of all bus operators who are recipients of regional transit funds through the formula share. Using this definition, MTA Operations is included as a municipal carrier. Currently there are four demand responsive carriers and thirteen fixed route carriers. In the first category are the dial-a-ride systems for the cities of Arcadia, Claremont, La Mirada and Redondo Beach. In the second category are the municipal bus systems for the following cities: Antelope Valley Transit Authority (Lancaster and Palmdale), Commerce, Culver City, Gardena, Los Angeles (LADOT), Long Beach, Montebello, Norwalk, Santa Clarita, Santa Monica and Torrance. Also in this category are MTA Operations and starting July 1, 1996, Foothill Transit Zone. All of the municipal operators are departments of their respective cities, except that Long Beach is an independent department of that city. Foothill Transit is a Joint Powers Agency and MTA Operations is directly a part of the LACMTA, a public entity with a locally appointed Board of Directors. All other transit operations operated by cities within Los Angeles County, both fixed route and demand responsive, are funded by funds under their own control, within specified guidelines, with most of the funds coming from the cities’ Local Return Funds from Propositions A and C. As a historical note, six of the municipal systems, not counting the predecessors to MTA Operations, operated as bus substitutes when the Pacific Electric rail system was being abandoned incrementally. Also see Proposition A and Proposition C.