encyclopedia

SPRAWL

Urban form that connotatively depicts the movement of people from the central city to suburbs. Concerns associated with sprawl include loss of farmland and open space due to low-density environment, increased public service cost, and environmental degradation as well as…

SPREAD

The Over-all time, from the time an employee commences his/her duty, unit he/she completes his/her final assignment for that particular day.

SPREAD TIME

The period of time from the moment an operator initially signs on until he/she signs off. In addition to driving time, spread time includes time between runs, travel time and deadheading.

SPREADER

A rail car used for maintenance of the right-of-way which is equipped with movable, angled blades which can be positioned to shove or plow earth or snow away from the track when a locomotive shoves or pulls a car.