Urban form that connotatively depicts the movement of people from the central city to suburbs. Concerns associated with sprawl include loss of farmland and open space due to low-density environment, increased public service cost, and environmental degradation as well as…


The Over-all time, from the time an employee commences his/her duty, unit he/she completes his/her final assignment for that particular day.


The period of time from the moment an operator initially signs on until he/she signs off. In addition to driving time, spread time includes time between runs, travel time and deadheading.


A rail car used for maintenance of the right-of-way which is equipped with movable, angled blades which can be positioned to shove or plow earth or snow away from the track when a locomotive shoves or pulls a car.